It is not for nothing that the indoor orchid is called the queen of flowers. It fills the whole space with its wonderful aroma, and you want to look at its magnificent flowers again and again. In the article we offer a selection of the most popular types of orchids with photos and names, which will help you choose the best option. There are varieties with small and large buds, unpretentious for beginners, capricious for experienced flower growers, and many others.
All about varieties of orchids
Features and structure of the plant
Most popular types
Species features of a room orchid
Orchid is a flowering ornamental plant that belongs to the orchid family. There are more than 25 thousand varieties and hybrids worldwide. It is one of the most beautiful houseplants and is often given as a gift or used in bouquets.
- Monopodial. They grow vertically in height, have one long stem. Several flower stalks emerge from shoots (pseudobulbs) that contain all the necessary nutrients and trace elements for healthy growth. Broad flat leaves have a rounded shape.
- Sympodial. They grow in width, outwardly resemble vines with many shoots. They are united by a rhizome (rhizome), which acts as a stem. Pseudobulbs subsequently appear on it, from which new buds grow. Due to this, they visually look more bushy than monopodial ones, while the leaves of such specimens are narrow and oblong.
Each species has a different aroma with dominant notes of lemon, cinnamon and even coffee beans. Some have a barely perceptible sound, while others, on the contrary, are fragrant throughout the room.
On average, orchids bloom about 2-3 times a year, but there are varieties that, with proper care, delight with lush flowering for a whole year. In some varieties, nondescript buds and inflorescences may appear, but this is offset by the beautiful and bizarre shape of the leaves. Forms of inflorescences and color options depend on the variety. The peculiarity of the flower is symmetry. It consists of three sepals, two lateral petals and a central part — a lip. It can be painted in the color of the rest of the petals, stand out in a different tone or bright blotches.
Not only leaves and stems take part in photosynthesis, but also the root system. Therefore, for most varieties, only transparent containers are suitable instead of ordinary pots. Some branches of the roots are also best left above the ground.
What are orchids: the most popular species for the home
Orchids have many varieties and hybrids. For a home greenhouse, they are chosen for the wonderful aromas of the petals and the bizarre shapes of the flowers. We have prepared a selection of the most popular varieties of orchids with photos, names and descriptions.
One of the large varieties, the stem can reach a height of up to 1 m. It does not have a dormant period, therefore, under favorable conditions, it blooms all year round. Many grow Vandas specifically for making bouquets. If cut and placed in water, they stay fresh for up to two weeks on average. In the aroma, spicy notes are sometimes replaced by juicy grapes.
Wanda’s flowers have a peculiarity: when they are just starting to bloom, they seem completely inconspicuous, but within a few days the shade becomes more and more saturated. Their diameter is from 10 to 15 centimeters. Depending on the variety, the flowers are white, pink, purple, orange and even blue, and there are also unusual two- and three-color colors.
This species loves high humidity of 80%, feels comfortable at a temperature of 16-29 degrees. If the room is very hot, it may die. Planting does not require soil or substrate.
There is a beautiful legend about the discovery and name of this species: the botanist Karl Blume examined the jungle through binoculars, and in the dark he mistakenly mistook orchid flowers for many butterflies. In memory of this incident, he named the genus Phalaenopsis (phalania — «night butterfly», opsis — «similarity»).
Phalaenopsis are divided into ordinary (up to 1 m high) and miniature (up to 30 cm high). Depending on the variety, the flowers come in different shades, with ornaments and splashes. The lip, as a rule, stands out in contrast against the background of the rest of the petals.
Under favorable conditions, phalaenopsis bloom even 3 times a year, the duration, on average, is up to 4 months. They love diffused light and feel good in a little shading, for example, behind a curtain. The maximum allowable air temperature is 42 degrees. Watering is needed after the soil has completely dried, as for other varieties. Phalaenopsis have aerial roots that branch out above the ground. Therefore, you need to make sure that they do not fall into a neighboring pot with another plant.
The flowers of this species have a very unusual shape, bloom in yellow, light green and light lilac shades. They are distinguished by variegated colors with beautiful contrasting patches. Due to thin and long petals, they resemble spider legs, their edges can reach 15 cm. They are fragrant with delicate aromas of honey and vanilla.
Brassia can grow to a height of up to 50 cm and, under favorable conditions, blooms all year round. Likes «tropical» environments with high temperatures and is very sensitive to drafts. The minimum temperature in winter should not fall below 20 degrees. Unlike other species, it withstands direct sunlight. Cannot be transplanted during flowering.
The name consists of two words «odontos» and «glossa», which translates as «tongue» and «tooth». Such an association arose from the botanist Karl Kunt when he saw the unusual shape of the flowers. Depending on the variety, flower stalks can produce from 20 to 150 buds. Petals come in a variety of colors.
Flowering occurs once a year. Interestingly, to stimulate it, Odontoglossum is not watered for a month and temperature drops are specially created. But without a lot of experience and skill, such a procedure is not recommended. There must be absolute confidence that the plant is healthy, and such «shocks» will not destroy it.
Odontoglossum likes moderate lighting, but on hot days it needs to be kept in a little shade. Watering is necessary on average 1-2 times a week, it should be done more often only if the temperature in the room is elevated.
Simple but beautiful flowers are not at all like something exotic. On the contrary, they resemble such familiar garden plants as pansies. Tactile petals seem tender and velvety. The leaves of some varieties are not only habitually green, but also yellow and gray shades.
Miltonia loves a lot of light, but direct sunlight can cause burns. Flowering lasts about 4-6 weeks, most often from October to November. During this period, the room is filled with a magical aroma with notes of rose and citrus. As soon as the first buds appear, you need to stop feeding.
Miltonia does not tolerate strong temperature fluctuations, feels comfortable in conditions of high humidity. During the heating period, it is necessary to regularly spray it with water from a spray bottle.
Cattleya petals have fancy ruffled edges that many compare to terry cloth. They have a delicate smell of lilies of the valley and lilies, and the palette includes all the popular and unusual tones — from white to dark purple and black.
A little capricious in care compared to other species, therefore it is suitable for experienced and patient flower growers. He loves the direct rays of the sun and southeastern windows, however, he “hardly” survives the transplant and then long after it comes to his senses. Watering should be done as the soil dries out, while water should not be allowed to fall on the shoots.
The first buds appear only in adult specimens. If the age of the plant cannot be determined, then they are usually guided by the size of the bulbs. They should be in the range of 8 to 20 cm and have a «case». Flowering will come if these signs are found and all conditions for care and maintenance are met. Additionally, it can also be stimulated by daytime temperature changes.
Depending on the variety, the plant can reach a height of 20 to 100 cm. The stems and buds are quite weighty, so they need small supports. And this is not surprising: brushes can reproduce up to 100 flowers!
Flowering occurs once a year and lasts no more than 3 months. During this period, Dendrobiums cannot be moved to another place or turned to the other side, otherwise all the buds will fall off. It does not bloom annually, but do not be upset: the longer the wait, the more magnificent and abundant the flowering will be next time.
The plant does not require special conditions and does not need to be formed. Each variety and hybrid has its own unusual aroma: ripe raspberries, bananas, hyacinths and many others. During periods of short daylight hours, it is necessary to provide additional illumination for at least 12 hours.
Depending on the variety, Cymbidiums can reach a height of 20 cm to 1.5 meters. Many flower growers consider them the most beautiful variety of orchids. The petals have a special pronounced smell, for which in China the plant is called the «Queen of Aromas». The most common shades are cream, milky, yellow, brown, burgundy. On the «lip» of the perianth there are red blotches or dashes.
Traditionally blooms in winter for 4-6 weeks, but hybrids delight with lush buds at any time of the year. During this period, the orchid does not like additional feeding, otherwise it begins to drop flowers, and needs supports. As true inhabitants of the tropics, Cymbidiums are very demanding on high humidity and good lighting. In winter and autumn, when the daylight hours are reduced, they require additional illumination lasting 4-5 hours. They love 50% air humidity and regular spraying.
This species was obtained by breeding, so it cannot be found in nature. When crossing hybrids, different varieties were used, due to this Cumbria flowers can have different colors and patterns. Visually, they resemble stars, in diameter they can reach 10 cm. Dense leaves have a dark green tone, on which textured veins are clearly visible. Up to 12 pieces can appear from one pseudobulb.
Unlike other species, the Cumbrian root system is not involved in photosynthesis. Therefore, she does not need a transparent container, but a thick-walled ceramic pot is best. Flowering occurs all year round and lasts for periods of 1-2 months. The orchid feels comfortable in conditions of air humidity not higher than 40%. Waterlogging should not be allowed, otherwise the root system will begin to rot.
A capricious look that only an experienced grower can handle. One of the hardest things to do is lighting. Zygopetalum loves a lot of light, but bright sunlight can interrupt the ripening of pseudobulbs. Therefore, you need to carefully maintain a balance, do not burn the leaves and sometimes use phytolamps. Humidity should not be below 70%.
Flowering occurs in winter and lasts up to 6 weeks, on peduncles, on average, about 10 flowers appear. The petals have a sweet honey aroma, especially pronounced in the morning. The lip resembles a fan in shape and is visually distinguished by a different shade.
Completes our list of orchid species with a photo of Oncidium, which is also called “dancing dolls” in a different way. It grows up to 40 cm in height, and the diameter of the flower of some varieties reaches 12 cm. When plucked, they can stand in water for up to 3 weeks, so florists often use them to make bouquets. Interestingly, one flower has petals of different sizes — such an asymmetry looks beautiful and unusual.
Oncidium can bloom twice a year, it is better to stimulate the process with top dressing. Flowering lasts several months, if you follow all the conditions for care and create a suitable microclimate. They react very painfully to transplantation, so they resort to it only when necessary, for example, when the old soil has already become unusable. Does not like strong temperature changes, with the exception of the Twinkle variety. It is not picky about air humidity, a level of 40% is enough.