Brief content of the article:
Types of baths by type of structure
Depends on the source of heating, the materials used and the type of structure. The parameters are selected individually, taking into account the place where the bath is installed and the taste of the owner.
- Full. It is built separately and includes a washing room, a steam room, a relaxation room. Bath close to home can be built in one or two floors with additional rooms.
- Built-in. If the area is small. Alternatively, the living room is combined with a relaxation area, the washing room is used as a full-fledged bathroom. For baths in the house you just need to find a place for a steam room.
- Annex. When there is no space for a steam room in the house, you can make it in the annex. There you can also place a washing room and a rest room, if the area allows.
- Trailer. Budget option for a mobile bath. It is installed directly on the ground, or a low-power foundation. Small size is the only drawback.
- Bath-tent, or disposable. Temporary design. Installed before use, after — disassembled.
Main sources of heating
The steam room should be about 100 C, which can be provided by a wood, gas or electric stove.
- Wood. Russian baths are equipped with it. Build with red brick. The firebox is placed in the dressing room to throw firewood without entering the steam room. Modern wood burning stoves can be made of steel or cast iron.
- Gas oven. The most economical option. Certification and connection are difficulties that can be encountered when using.
- Electric oven. The most compact and simple option. The heating is adjusted automatically according to the settings. The advantages of the design are fast installation and ease of use.
Choosing a place to build a bath
- so that flooding does not occur, the bath should be at a distance from the reservoir;
- the building must be erected from a well or well no closer than 20 m;
- can be placed at a distance, or made in an extension, at the discretion of the owner;
- windows are best placed to the west;
- it is better to build in the backyard;
- adjacent areas should be sufficiently distant so that neighbors do not cause inconvenience;
- it is necessary to ensure the effective disposal of sewage and equip ventilation;
- bath is better to build on the south side. So she will receive enough light, and the wind will not annoy the vacationers;
- not recommended to build next to the road.
Attention! Bath with your own hands it is better to start building in the spring. After completing the main work, the wooden structure is left for six months, so that the material dries and gives the desired shrinkage.
Bath in a private the house is built from a profiled beam or log house. Such walls perfectly retain heat, keeping it as long as possible, and the smell of resin has a positive effect on health. Disadvantages — increased fire hazard and poorly sealed joints. The first problem is solved by processing with special solutions. Having carefully caulked the gap, you can get rid of the second one.
Concrete blocks and bricks are budget materials for building walls. Ease of maintenance, good thermal insulation, fire resistance are the advantages of such a bath. Additionally, the walls of the building are thermally insulated, carefully sealed from the inside.
How to make a bath — a budget option
To enjoy water procedures in a steam room, it is not necessary to build a large bath. With a limited budget, you can save on the following:
- Wall material. Bath close to home it is preferable to build from wood, but you can save money by using blocks for this purpose. If you still don’t want to deviate from traditions, they recommend frame technology using a used board.
- Layout. At the design stage, the square is reduced to the maximum allowable size. In extreme cases, the bath can only consist of a steam room and a washing room. The recreation area is equipped in a separate room, or it is completely abandoned. The steam room must comply with all safety rules: in a room that is too small, there is a risk of getting burned by steam or a stove.
- Water supply system. The plumbing can be replaced by a stove with a water heating tank.
Important! All aspects of savings must be discussed with specialists. Only they will be able to determine which ones are undesirable to use, and where it will be appropriate.
How to build a bath with your own hands — the main stages
Construction is carried out gradually, starting with the preparation of the site and ending with equipping the bath with the necessary accessories.
- Site preparation. They clean up debris, uproot shrubs and large roots so that nothing interferes with the construction site.
- Foundation pouring. For a bath from a bar, a supporting columnar structure is erected. Before installing the supports, prepare the required number of holes. Install poles around the perimeter and under the intersection of the walls. The distance between them is determined individually, taking into account the type of soil and load. The depth must be at least 1 m. This value depends on the degree of freezing of the earth. A 10 cm layer of a mixture of sand and gravel is poured into the pits. Asbestos pipes are installed strictly vertically. Fittings are placed inside. The space around the pipes is filled with a concrete solution. A few days later, a half-brick wall is laid between them.
- Building walls and installing roofs. Traditionally, timber is used. The foundation is preliminarily waterproofed and the first row is laid on it, leveling it. Laying is performed using the «in the foot» method. Continue to lay out the walls to the required height, leaving openings for mounting windows and doors. The rows are connected with dowels made of wood. Insulated with jute or other material. Having reached the roof, the rafters are fixed to the last row with brackets, taking into account the design features of the roof.
When installing a single-pitched configuration, the rafters are fixed externally, or in combination with internal supports. The lower ends rest on the walls, and the upper ends are connected, forming a ridge during the installation of a gable system. Attach the deck boards. Lay heat, steam and waterproofing materials. The quality of the bath depends on the insulation. Install roofing.
- Interior decoration. Install the necessary communications. Even when creating the foundation, you need to take care of the sewerage. Outside the building, a drainage well is equipped, which is connected by a pipe to a bathhouse installed under a slope. After that, the floor is made of wood or concrete. The last option is tiled.
The wooden floor must leak. To do this, install logs, to which the boards are nailed, leaving a small gap. To drain water, you can make a small hatch by closing it with a decorative grille. In this case, the floor is mounted with a slope.
Important! Wood will last longer if bath next to the house leave to air after each use.
Special materials isolate the floor and walls. Install doors and windows. Perform plumbing and electrical installations. Install electrical appliances.
- Shelves and oven. The configuration of the first is chosen to your taste. First, a support frame is mounted from a bar, to which boards are subsequently nailed.
The stove can be anything from a traditional heater to a modern electric one. A foundation is arranged for a heavy structure, taking into account the characteristics of a particular heater.
- Accessories. Having completed the construction and decoration of the premises in a private housethe bath is supplemented with various accessories: buckets, brooms, a wooden mug for pouring water, etc. The interior decoration depends on the owner’s imagination.
How to build a bath in the house
If the personal plot is small, the option will help to solve the problem when the bath is equipped directly in the house. This method is much more economical, since it does not require pouring the foundation. Device in a private house steam rooms require strict adherence to fire safety measures. It is important to provide hydro- and vapor barrier of the room so that the built-in bath did not harm the house. For the steam room, it is desirable to allocate a separate room.
Preparing the room for the installation of the built-in bath
Before equipping do-it-yourself bath inside the house, determined with the place where it will be located. It is better to do this on the ground floor or in the basement. Begin the arrangement with design. The size of the room is calculated from the number of people, allocating three square meters for each. In this case, there is no need for additional washing equipment.
At this stage, the connection to the sewer and the location of the ventilation duct are designed. If you plan to install an electric furnace, you must take care of the wiring power in advance. If necessary, equip a three-phase network.
The following materials are purchased: tiles, cork shield or mineral wool, lining, expanded clay, corrugated pipe, roofing material, metal hose, aluminum foil. Start building. First of all, they provide power supply to the devices.
Electrification of the built-in bath
When choosing an electric stove, you need to pay special attention to the power to ensure high-quality heating of the steam room. It is better to opt for a model with a terminal box located on the rear panel. The device is adapted for a bath, with enhanced protection against moisture. Under the electric furnace it is necessary to build a foundation.
Is it possible himself electrify the bath? Yes, if you follow the safety measures and perform the actions in strict sequence: place an additional machine on the switchboard, lay a cable in a special corrugated pipe, install a separate socket for the furnace.
Installation of ventilation for a bath inside the house
High-quality ventilation will protect the wood in the steam room from swelling, mold and premature decay.
- Ventilation. The best place for arranging the inlet channel is behind the stove in the floor. Cold air will instantly warm up and circulate through the steam room. The outlet is equipped from above, positioned diagonally with respect to the inlet.
- The ventilation passage is laid from one channel to another.
- Install valves to control air flow.
- To prevent hot air from entering the living room in the event of a fire, a fire hydrant is mounted. When the fire extinguishing system is turned on, it will close
Important! The steam room will warm up faster and better only with properly installed ventilation. Otherwise, hot air will only be near the furnace.
Installation of sewerage in the bath indoors
Before arranging the floor, it is necessary to install a sewer. The easiest way is to embed the pipe into the overall system.
If this is not possible, you will have to equip the drain by ourselves doing the work in the following order:
- Stepping back at least half a meter from the building, dig a drain hole at least one and a half meters deep.
- Make a trench to the bath.
- To drain, equip a recess.
- Fill the holes with a mixture of sand and gravel.
- Install pipes at a slope to the septic tank.
- Spread joints with cement mortar.
Attention! The drain should not be installed directly next to the steam room. Constant humidity can cause mold and dampness.
In the steam room, the floor is lined with wood or tiles, using heat-resistant tiles for this purpose.
Floor finishing sequence:
- The future floor is covered with expanded clay.
- Concrete is poured under a slope to the drain hole.
- Lined with a waterproofing film or roofing material.
- A screed is made from a mixture of sand and cement, observing a slope towards the drain. A base is laid around the furnace with refractory bricks.
- Perform tile installation.
The coating must have a rough surface, or a wooden ladder is installed on the floor.
Sheathing of the ceiling and walls of the steam room
Hardwood is the best option for wall decoration. Softwood is not suitable for this, as it contains a lot of resinous substances.
- Parchment or bituminous paper is fixed with an overlapping wooden rail. This process is performed exclusively in brick rooms.
- Mount the frame on the walls and ceiling with bars.
- Carry out the cabling to the places where the lamps will be located.
- A dry pipe is installed under the ceiling around the perimeter to ensure fire extinguishing.
- Lay insulation between the bars so that it fits snugly against the wall.
- The layer is fixed with aluminum foil, the mirror side inward. This will ensure rapid heating and will keep the heat in the steam room as long as possible.
- The joints are glued with metallic tape.
- Strictly horizontally fasten the crate. Do this carefully so that the foil does not tear.
- From the bars, transverse frames are mounted, on which the shelves will subsequently be mounted.
- The clapboard is sheathed on the ceiling and walls.
Attention! When arranging a false ceiling, the insulation is laid up only after sheathing. The best material for this is glass wool.
Features of arranging shops in a bathhouse built into the house
Attached to a pre-mounted frame under the lining. Made from carefully sanded boards. Galvanized fasteners must be located inside the base so that they do not get burned at high temperatures. Before use, the shelves are lubricated with special oil.
Installation of the door in the built-in bath
Requirements for the entrance door to the bathhouse: open exclusively outward, be small in size and upholstered with insulation. A low threshold will prevent the entry of cold air and reduce heat loss. Preference is given to doors made of tongue-and-groove sanded boards.
Features of the arrangement of the electric furnace for the built-in steam room
The power of the furnace is calculated by the formula: per 1 sq.m. steam room 1 kV.
The sequence of installation of the electric furnace:
- The surface of the walls around the place where the device will be installed is upholstered with asbestos cardboard.
- A heater is installed on a pre-prepared base about 20 cm high. There should be a space of 25 cm around.
- Washed stones are placed in a special container.
How to equip a mobile built-in bath with your own hands
If you can’t allocate a whole room for the steam room, you can put a separate structure in any room.
- grooved and edged board;
- aluminum foil;
- mineral wool;
- lining wooden;
- waterproofing film.
The first step is to choose a place for the structure. It is better to mount it in the corner of the room. The bath should be no more than two meters in height. The sewerage drain is brought in advance and ventilation is done.
Stages of work:
- Electricity is supplied to the installation site of the booth using a thermally insulated cable. If an electric furnace is used for heating, an additional machine is installed on the switchboard.
- A floor is mounted around the perimeter of the future structure. Flooring is stuffed onto the logs from the edged board, a layer of waterproofing is laid and the grooved board is mounted at a slope to the drain hole.
- Bars are installed strictly vertically around the perimeter of the steam room and strapping is performed at five levels, placing them at the same distance.
- The base is upholstered with a layer of vapor barrier from the outside, and the walls adjacent to the structure are covered with it. Outside, the frame is sheathed with wooden clapboard, leaving room for the door. From the inside, a layer of insulation is laid. Aluminum foil is fixed on top, reflective surface inward. The joints are glued with metallic tape.
- The bars are stuffed from above so that an air corridor remains between the vapor barrier and the sheathing.
- From the inside, the steam room is sheathed with clapboard. Install a door in the room. Luminaires are placed in heat-resistant sealed shades.
- The location of the furnace is upholstered with a galvanized metal sheet. Install a heating device. Install benches and shelves. Wood is treated with special oil. Stones are placed in the bowl.
Building a free-standing or built-in bath is a laborious and troublesome process that requires special attention to detail. The above recommendations will help you choose the right place and materials for construction. Following the step-by-step instructions, you can build a safe and high-quality steam room yourself.