Owning a home is the cherished dream of many, although at present, more and more people in our country are trying to make this cherished dream a reality on their own, all the more so — even people with average incomes are quite capable of it. In the process of construction, many tasks arise, which are quite difficult to solve without specific knowledge, and sometimes completely impossible.
One such problem in the construction process is the roof. Being one of the main protective elements of any building, it must perform not only the functions assigned to it to protect against rain, snow, wind and save heat, but also look beautiful, aesthetically pleasing, correspond to the chosen style, and therefore its construction must be given the closest attention.
A very important step in this work is the installation of a special base on which the roof will be laid and fixed. When looking at sites describing construction technology, pay attention to photographs of the finished roof sheathing: you will notice a complex interweaving of boards, rafters and beams, although looking closely, you can distinguish the orderliness of their mutual placement.
Some home craftsmen, having noted this system for themselves, think that everything related to the crate is already quite clear to them, but at the very first independent attempts to do everything without preparation, they understand: the apparent simplicity hides many non-obvious points, and therefore, in order to avoid problems , let’s take a closer look at issues related to the arrangement of the crate and the features of its design.
Brief content of the article:
What is a crate
In its most general form, the crate under the roof, or, correctly, under the roof, is a special type of frame, made in strict observance of a certain selected system of relative positioning, fixed on the rafters, intended for laying and fastening roofing elements.
Thus, the design of the crate must meet the following requirements:
- Evenly distribute the entire roof over all load-bearing rafters;
- Reliably hold the roofing material, regardless of external climatic conditions and influences;
- Create conditions for effective ventilation between the roof and the insulating layer of a special protective coating.
The installation of the crate is carried out on truss beams, which, in turn, represent the supporting frame of the entire roof.
There are various options in the design of the crate, namely:
- Solid: the gap between the individual elements of the crate is no more than one centimeter. It is allowed to use plywood sheets in the construction of a continuous crate;
- Small — sparse design: the gap between the elements is in the range from three to four centimeters;
- Regular or sparse design: the gap between the elements, in this classic version, is in the range from thirty to seventy-five centimeters. Sometimes there are options where this gap can be more than seventy-five centimeters;
- Single layer crate;
- Double layer construction.
Choosing the right roof sheathing is necessary based on the type of roofing and the features of the chosen design of the roof of the building itself.
So, for soft tiles, soft roofing materials and flat slate, a continuous crate is mounted. For metal and ceramic tiles, as well as ordinary slate, sparse types of crates are used.
For a roof that will be subjected to strong external influences, a multi-layer crate is used, under normal conditions — a single layer.
As a rule, bars, slats or boards of coniferous wood are used for the construction of the crate. In general, it is possible to use the following types of materials:
- Edged, unedged or tongue-and-groove boards;
- Plywood is moisture resistant;
- Special, oriented strand board.
Important! Boards with a width of more than fifteen centimeters should not be used for crates — they, over time, warp in their diameter.
Another point that must be taken into account: the size of the nails should be twice the size of the board into which it will be hammered.
Before you start thinking about how to make a roof sheathing, think over all the points associated with choosing the type of construction and materials you need, and this, in turn, will depend on the external weather conditions in your area, the type of roofing material and your financial capabilities. .
We note right away that the technology for installing the lathing of a gable roof or an ordinary flat roof is not particularly different. If the angle of inclination is insignificant, the structure will have lower requirements for mechanical strength, and in addition, all work will be much easier to perform.
When creating the crate, do not forget that during installation it is necessary to think over and install hydro and thermal insulation at the same time.
As materials, ordinary roofing material or a special microperforated film can be used. We will not talk about the features and design of hydro-thermal insulation here, this is a separate and rather serious topic.
In general, the sequence of installation work for installing the crate, in its most general form, is as follows:
- All necessary markings are made on the rafters;
- Installed hydro and thermal insulation. A counter-lattice is installed on top of it;
- All elements of the crate itself are installed;
- After installing each beam or board, it is necessary to control the dimensions and relative position of the elements.
The roof itself is installed on the mounted crate.
Special, new types of crates
Recently, the use of a new type — a metal roof lathing — has become increasingly popular. This type of crate is made from a special metal profile, the design of which is fastened with special fasteners, which are anchor bolts, screws and self-tapping screws. In some places it is acceptable to use wrenches and screws.
The advantages of a metal crate are obvious:
- Fire safety;
In this type of construction, elements of different profiles and sizes are used. As a rule, they have an aluminum-zinc or galvanized protective coating.
Regardless of the type of crate you have chosen, whether it is a traditional wooden structure or a new type — steel, its technical structure is similar, and the installation technology differs only in material features, but the sequence of actions remains unchanged.
Note that it is quite possible to mount the crate with your own hands at home, this does not require a special kind of tool or highly specialized skills.
When carrying out all work, do not forget about safety, especially since all work must be carried out at height, and therefore protect yourself — use safety ropes and belts.
If the structure is made of wood, you need to take care of the fire coating: it is done by treating the structure with a special solution.
The last thing I want to say is that it is rational to calculate the amount of material required for the entire crate, thereby saving your finances and family budget, special calculators will allow you to find them on the Internet.
Photo of the roof lathing