In nature, there are many varieties of ficuses, which include, for example, a fig tree. At home, you can grow only a couple of dozen of these species. We talk about the most popular and affordable ficuses for purchase, caring for them at home and transplanting.

All about ficus care

Kinds
— Benjamin
— rubber-bearing
— lyre-shaped
— Dwarf
Care
— Favorable conditions
— watering
— Cropping
— top dressing
– Transplant
reproduction
Frequent problems
— Unsuitable conditions
— Diseases
— Parasites

Kinds

Benjamin

This species looks like a tree with a thin trunk and small leaves, which, depending on the plant variety, can be completely green or with light veins. In the presence of the latter, the pot should be placed closer to the window, since this variety needs more daylight. Solid dark green foliage, on the contrary, feels better in diffused light, so place a container with a flower in the back of the room, 2-3 meters from the window.

rubbery

This variety has one trunk, which is not divided into branches. Large dark green leaves stretch upwards. Like Benjamin, the greens of the rubbery ficus can be plain or veined. Colorful foliage needs more light, so place the pot closer to a window. Also make sure that the leaves do not dry out and do not end up in a draft — this is an indispensable part of care. To do this, keep them away from central heating radiators and away from a window that opens for ventilation.

lyre-shaped

This is a large indoor flower that can reach 1.5-2 meters in height. The trunk is entirely covered with large light green leaves with a wavy edge. This variety grows quickly — under good conditions and regular fertilization in the warm season, growth in the first years of life can be 20-25 cm.

Dwarf

This species is unlike the others: it is miniature, creeping along the soil, with small rounded leaves. If you want it to grow and hang nicely from the shelf, transplant into larger pots about once a year or a year and a half. If there is no room for the development of the root system, growth will stop.

Ficuses: home care with a photo

Creation of favorable conditions

Ficuses are photophilous houseplants. Therefore, get ready for the fact that you will need to allocate a place closer to the sun. Even if in summer the flower felt good away from the window due to the long daylight hours, in winter you still have to move it to the light. But it is better to avoid frequent movements, since changing the location can lead to the dropping of greenery. This is the very first and noticeable sign that something is wrong. After a one-time loss of leaves, the plant will not die, but will become less showy. New foliage will not appear until spring or summer, when a period of active growth begins.

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Watering and humidity

Ficuses love moisture. Therefore, carry out regular spraying with a spray bottle for them. To do this, it is best to use soft water that has passed through the filter — ordinary tap water is likely to leave white stains on the green. Once every couple of weeks, you can arrange a warm shower. Be sure to place the filter in the drain of the bathtub or shower stall so that it does not become clogged with soil.

Also, do not forget about the important part of care for the ficus — regular watering. You need to moisten the soil as it dries, but at the same time try not to let the roots dry out for a long time, otherwise the leaves will begin to fall off. The larger the pot, the less often watering is needed, as the soil needs some time to dry out. Along with this, it is important not to flood the roots and prevent them from rotting in the eternally damp soil, watering the flower often and a little bit. To avoid problems with waterlogging, use bottom watering. When the earth is dry enough, draw water into the basin and put the pot in it for 20-30 minutes. The soil itself, like a sponge, will absorb the right amount of water through the drainage holes. After that, lift the pot and hold it in the air for a couple of minutes, allowing excess water to drain. After a couple of hours, make sure that no water has accumulated there.

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pruning

Pruning is carried out in early spring, always before April, while the plant has not yet woken up and this procedure has not become traumatic for it. There are several reasons for cutting branches.:

  • An adult flower has become too large, and its growth must be slowed down by removing the top.
  • A lot of leaves fell, the branches were bare. In this case, pruning above the internodes will provoke the growth of new branches and leaves.
  • Need to propagate by cuttings.

Be sure to use sharp and disinfected garden shears and treat the cut with antibacterial compounds. Also be careful with the juice that is released at the incision site — it should not get into the eyes or mucous membranes, as it will provoke irritation.

Benjamin’s species is suitable for bonsai. In this case, pruning is carried out to give the crown a certain shape. Beginners usually achieve an upright crown, broad at the base and tapering towards the top. More experienced gardeners bend the trunk as it grows, split it in two, or point it to the side, as if under the influence of the wind.

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top dressing

It is only necessary to fertilize the soil during the warm months, since in winter and autumn the plant is at rest and does not grow. The peak of growth occurs in June and July — at this time, organic and mineral fertilizers can be applied once every 2-3 weeks. Usually they are dissolved in water for irrigation, following the instructions on the package. The rest of the time, feeding once a month is enough. If your goal is fast growth and dense foliage, active top dressing can be carried out from April to September. But be careful with fertilizer doses and follow the proportions when dissolving them in water. Excess chemicals can damage the roots.

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Transfer

Ficus is an indoor flower, the care of which includes regular transplantation, since in the first years they grow quite actively. Therefore, if the task is to grow a large flower, then increase the volume of the pot every year in early spring and carry out active feeding until mid-autumn. Five-year-old plants can already be transplanted every couple of years, and very large flowers 1.5-2 meters in size just need to change the top layer of soil once a year.

A ficus pot can be made of ceramic, clay or high-quality plastic. Settle for a classic round shape with not too high edges. The volume of the container should be only 20-30% larger than the volume of the root system. If you plant a plant in a pot that is too large, the growth of the flower will slow down. For bonsai, flat, rectangular containers with low edges are also often chosen. The soil is neutral, with a pH of 5.5-7.5, and well fertilized. For young seedlings — lighter, well-permeable to water and air. For large ones, it is dense, since the ficus needs to be rooted so that it does not fall sideways.

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reproduction

Reproduction of ficuses, as well as caring for them, is a fairly simple process. In March, cut a few shoots. The upper parts of branches 10-12 cm in size are suitable for layering. Cuttings can be planted not only in early spring, but it is during this period that the process is the least traumatic for the flower. In addition, in April, rooted cuttings will actively grow and take root better in the ground. Immediately after pruning, keep the cut branches under running water. This is necessary so that the juice does not block the cut and does not block the growth of the roots. Be careful at this moment, do not forget to wash your hands with soap — the flower juice is quite allergic.

After washing, the cuttings are placed in water or immediately rooted in the ground. In the first case, growth stimulants are added to the liquid, and the soil is simply watered with fertilizers dissolved in it and covered with a plastic bag. The container with the plant is placed in a warm sunny place. Roots will appear in about 3-5 weeks.

This flower is practically not propagated by seeds. They have low germination, which requires greenhouse conditions, and therefore are rarely found in flower shops.

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Frequent problems

Unsuitable conditions

The plant reacts very quickly to adverse conditions, starting to shed its leaves. This helps to quickly identify the problem and fix it before the flower dies. Therefore, noticing the first symptoms, do not be alarmed. Start by analyzing the conditions in which the ficus grows. Most likely, he does not have enough light or the irrigation regime has been violated. If you suspect a lack of water, try not only to moisten the soil more often, but also to drain it with a thin wooden stick. Carefully introduce it into the ground to make the soil more breathable and moisture-permeable without touching the root system.

If there is a suspicion that the roots have been flooded, remove them from the pot and dry them. All rotten and diseased processes must be cut off, the soil replaced. When transplanting, use a large amount of drainage — it protects the roots from decay.

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Diseases

White bloom on greenery, black and brown spots, twisted leaf plates are signs of fungal diseases. Quarantine the plant, change the soil, treat with fungicides and wait for the symptoms to disappear. After an illness, some of the leaves will probably fall off, including to get rid of toxins, so do not forget about regular feeding, which will help the ficus recover.

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parasites

Ficuses are susceptible to all popular parasites: spider mites, aphids, scale insects. If you find pests, wash them off in the shower, treat the leaves with neem oil or insecticides. Until the parasites disappear, the pot should be in a room where there are no other plants. If the problem arose in the summer, feel free to put the flower on an open balcony — sunlight will help you recover faster. Feeding will also come in handy. If you do not want to use store-bought fertilizers, you can make an infusion of nettle or ash at home.

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