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There are more and more household electrical appliances, their total power is growing. The risk of electric shock is growing. There was a need for protection. The operating rules say: grounding is the intentional connection of a piece of equipment or an electrical circuit to the ground. Three security systems are used in everyday life:

  • Traditional
  • Modular pin
  • electrolytic

Brief content of the article:

Traditional protection

A tool for a traditional protection device — a sledgehammer, a grinder, a bayonet shovel, a set of wrenches, a device for measuring insulation resistance.

Loop grounding installation

Basically, the ground loop is determined by a triangle, but there are also quadrangular, oval and linear ones. A trench is dug in the form of an equilateral triangle 70 centimeters wide, 50 centimeters deep, with sides 120 centimeters long.

Materials:

  • corners with shelves 50 millimeters.
  • rod with a diameter of 16 millimeters.
  • pipes with a diameter of 2 inches.
  • metal steel tape 4 centimeters wide, 4 millimeters thick.


We prepare the electrodes — we cut the pins 3 meters long. From one end we sharpen them, and from the other we weld platforms for the convenience of clogging. At the tops of the triangle of the trench we hammer in the electrodes — pins, leaving 10 centimeters above the ground. With a steel tape, by welding, we tie the contour. Pins can be made from a rod, from a corner, or from a pipe.

From one of the vertices of the triangle closest to the house, we dig a trench 50 centimeters deep, 60 centimeters wide to connect horizontal grounding to the inside of the house grounding. The pins hammered into the ground are called a vertical ground electrode, and the tape tying them is called a horizontal one.

Welding joints must be very reliable, and therefore an experienced welder should perform welding work. Upon completion of welding, the joints are freed from slag and covered with a special, anti-corrosion coating. But don’t paint!

It is not recommended to use existing pipelines of metal structures in the ground as grounding conductors, they quickly collapse and pipelines too.

The disadvantage of the grounding systems discussed above is in a large amount of earthworks, a large area occupied by devices. If you buy metal, hire a welder, and do everything else yourself, then it will cost a hundred dollars.

But recently, modular-pin systems have appeared, which can be ordered via the Internet. The cost starts from three thousand rubles and the hassle is less, and it will turn out faster.


Installation of modular grounding

The modular grounding kit consists of copper-plated pins — electrodes, 1.5 meters long, with a thread with a diameter of 30 millimeters at the ends. Bronze couplings, starting tips for different soil hardness, special conductive lubricant and guide sleeve for plugging electrodes.

So, we take the first pin, we wind the starting tip all the way. On the other hand, we wind the coupling, having previously lubricated it with special grease until it stops. We screw the guide head into the coupling until it stops so that it rests on the electrode, and not on the thread, to relieve the load from the thread when driving the pin.

We insert the hammer of the perforator into the hole of the guide head, turn on the perforator, hold the pin vertically. After a minute, the electrode completely enters the ground.

We prepare the next pin — we unscrew the guide washer, apply lubricant to the thread of the second pin, twist the second pin into the sleeve protruding from the first pin, screw the sleeve onto the upper end of the second pin, and the guide head into it, turn on the puncher, one minute, ready.

We measure the grounding, if the resistance suits, go to one and a half meters and repeat the operation. At the end of the work, it remains to connect the electrodes sticking out of the ground with a stranded copper wire using clamps from the kit with the internal contour of the house.


Installation of electrolytic grounding

The kit includes an L-shaped electrode made of a stainless pipe, perforated, three meters long, filled with a special filler, four bags of clay-graphite powder, a clamp with stranded copper wire, for connection to the internal circuit of the house

A trench is dug 50 centimeters deep and 3 meters long. The bottom of the trench is sprinkled with a clay-graphite mixture, an electrode is laid on it, the bent part up. The rest of the clay-graphite mixture is poured onto the electrode and covered with soil.

A clamp with a stranded wire is installed on the part of the electrode that goes up to connect to the bus of the internal part of the grounding of the house, and a head is put on for maintenance. The contact points are isolated with a special tape from the kit with a hydrophobic coating. The installation time is 3 hours.

For greater confidence, you can install another type of protection on the shield, the so-called RCD, which reacts to the slightest short circuit in the electrical wiring system, reactions to currents in protected installations.

The essence of the RCD is that it fixes the difference between the incoming current and the returning one. If the difference exceeds the allowable rate, the mechanism for disconnecting from the supply of electrical energy is triggered. The RCD has become unconditional for social networks in private houses, apartments, wet rooms, where there are washing machines and dishwashers, in children’s rooms, to protect children from electric shock.


With all this, the question often arises — is it possible to connect an RCD without grounding?

It has long been known that the body of each electrical device has its own potential, and the difference between these devices is not equal to zero! Therefore, it becomes necessary to combine all devices with one bus in order to equalize the potentials.

So it turns out that it is impossible to do without grounding. After all, if the insulation is broken, the RCD will expect leakage, but there is no leakage, because there is no grounding, which means there is no leakage. Conclusion — grounding is necessary.

In places of residence where there is no soil, as such, there is the Herringbone grounding, which received such a name for its shape. Choose one of the walls, usually deaf. Pieces of a metal tape, 6 millimeters thick and 8 centimeters wide, are attached to it and connected to each other by welding so that they look like Christmas trees.

These Christmas trees are connected in series to each other in one circuit, thereby obtaining, as it were, a capacitance with its own potential, capable of dissipating electrical leakage.

Photo of grounding in a private house