The basement of the house is located between the foundation and the first floor of the building. First of all, it is designed to protect housing from moisture and low temperatures entering the living quarters. Let’s try to figure out what kind of design it is and how to properly make a basement at home.
Brief content of the article:
The basement of a private house is a rather important element of the building structure, however, not everyone clearly understands its functions. The main function of this element can be found from its name. In Italian, «zoccolo» refers to the foot of the building, or, in other words, what the main structure of the building is mounted on.
This is a necessary element for any building, whether it is the basement of a brick house, outbuildings, etc. The basic principles of building the basement of a private house do not differ from the principles of building it in a barn. The main purpose of the basement floor is to protect the premises of the house from environmental aggressors (cold, humidity, etc.). That is why this element of the house is insulated and waterproofed.
Many people wonder how to build a house — in breadth or in height. There is no correct answer to this question, and it all depends on many factors, including the territory itself, how much it allows you to load the soil. And not always everything concerns a solid foundation. Personally, I think that the most important thing is not to make a “box” out of the house, which is up and down, otherwise the whole meaning of a beautiful house will disappear, and the house will look like some kind of administrative strict building.
Watch the video: PANELING THE HOUSE PLATE
The connection of the basement with other planes of the house must be isolated from the aggressive effects of the environment. Thanks to hydro- and thermal insulation, moisture does not penetrate into the building material and does not give a chance for the development of condensate in the room. In addition, the plinth counteracts the penetration of cold into the house and serves as its additional decorative element.
Thanks to a wide range of finishing materials on the construction market, there are many opportunities to realize your design ideas through finishing the basement of a house. You can get inspired by viewing a photo of an interesting design of the basement of a house on the net or magazines.
Among the important functions of the base can also be distinguished:
- Creation of an air gap, which provides insulation of the basement of the house.
- Stable air circulation, which ensures a long service life of the structure.
- Raising the walls of the house, which helps to protect them from moisture and damage.
Types of plinth
Depending on the connection with the external wall, the plinth can be of different types: sinking, protruding, in a single plane. According to experts, the last option is the most irrational, since with the same level of the basement and wall, moisture easily penetrates into the room. The ideal option would be a sinking base.
Among the main advantages of the sinking design are:
- overload protection;
The overhanging section of the sunken basement will create additional protection for the premises from rainwater. It looks attractive. Unfortunately, this type of construction is not advisable to use in the construction of a house with thin walls.
As for the protruding base, it is done if the presence of a basement / subfloor is implied. Just this option is suitable for a house with thin walls. This type of base protects against moisture and the penetration of low temperatures.
If the house is settled on a strip foundation, then the part protruding above the ground will become the plinth. The columnar base of the house implies a plinth in the form of walls between the pillars. In another way, they call it a pickup. In addition, such a base significantly strengthens the foundation of the house.
Installation of a plinth on different types of foundation
The design and features of the basement directly depend on the type of foundation. For example, a strip foundation requires a plinth that will carry a load-bearing function. For a columnar foundation, the plinth plays the role of protection from adverse environmental conditions.
For this type, several types of base structures are suitable.
- Monolithic. This type of base is a single structure with the foundation.
- Brick. Bricks are built on top of the base. The ideal solution for a log home.
- Concrete. The basis of this design is made up of concrete slabs, which are laid on top of the foundation or as a base.
In the event that the building will be erected on a pile type of foundation, then there are the following design options for the basement.
Hanging plinth. For him, around the perimeter of the building, a crate is needed, on which the cladding will be attached. The main advantage is easy installation. Such a basement at home can be easily equipped with your own hands. This option is not suitable if you need a warm underground at home.
Wall between piles. She will close the underground. If the foundation is not too deep, then a strip base should be installed around the perimeter and trimmed with brick.
Basement waterproofing: recommendations
The basement of the house is exposed to moisture, rain, melting snow, etc. Moisture that builds up in basement materials can rise to other floors and enter living spaces. Salt spots will appear on the walls, the facade will lose its attractiveness, and the thermal conductivity of the walls of the house will increase. To avoid such problems, it is necessary to install high-quality and reliable waterproofing.
The area located thirty centimeters from ground level is most susceptible to such environmental influences. In other words, the height of the hydrobarrier should not be less than this figure. Ideally, the protected height of the basement of the house fluctuates around 70-80 centimeters.
If there is a basement in the house, it is necessary to install two waterproofing belts. They are usually located at the level of the basement and in the basement. In the latter, horizontal waterproofing is installed, which prevents the rise of moisture along the capillaries of the building.
Several types of waterproofing are intended for the basement, but the most popular are coating and pasting.
The first consists of several layers of waterproof coating, which includes bitumen, polymers, mastic and various polymer solutions. Among the advantages of coating waterproofing are ease of application and low price. Cons: poor frost resistance and fragility (service life no more than five years).
Pasting waterproofing consists of rolled bitumen membranes up to five millimeters thick (several layers) and a film.
When planning the construction of a house, consider the technical characteristics of the future building and the desired results. The material studied in advance will help in the future to carefully design the building, taking into account all the features.
Photo of the basement of the house