Avocado is an evergreen plant that is quite difficult to grow at home: it is almost impossible to get fruits from it. However, the process of germination itself is a lot of fun: you can watch how life gradually awakens in the seed. And then a bright green tree will decorate your interior. We tell you how to grow an avocado from a seed at home.
All about sprouting avocados at home
Buying a fruit
— on toothpicks
— in the ground
Transplant to the ground
How to buy the right fruit
For germination, it is worth choosing a ripe fruit. Determining ripeness is quite simple: this will be indicated by the color of the peel and the softness of the fruit. The fruit should be dark in color without black spots on the surface. To determine the readiness for use, you can do this: you need to slightly press the fruit on both sides, after releasing the structure should be restored. The pulp of the fruit should be soft. If the fruit is hard, then it has not ripened. However, these can also be taken. In this case, it is necessary to create conditions for maturation. Take a thick paper bag, a ripe apple or banana. Put the fruit in the bag along with the avocado. They will release a special gas that will help unripe fruits reach the desired state.
How to sprout an avocado seed at home
There are two ways to plant an avocado from the seed at home. All of them are quite simple to implement. Therefore, if desired, you can use any of them.
1. On toothpicks
The first step is to remove the pit from the avocado. To do this, you need to cut it, remove the seed. Then rinse thoroughly under running water and let dry. It is very important to carry out all the procedures on the same day, while you have just taken the bone out of the fetus.
Decide whether you will clean the bone. If this is not done, then it will germinate more slowly. To plant the seed, you need to cut a little on the sides and stick toothpicks 3 mm deep from four or three sides. They will act as a holder: with their help, the bone can be fixed over a container of water.
When the workpiece is ready, take a small glass (it should hold about 100 ml) and pour water. The liquid should not reach the edge. The seed is placed over the container with the blunt end down so that its third is in moisture. Gardeners recommend putting several seeds in a container at once. They will evenly absorb moisture, which will eliminate the likelihood of root rot. Sometimes there is too much moisture for one bone, and then the roots begin to rot.
Then you need to leave it for a month in a warm place. Approximately for so much the seed of an avocado sprouts in water. It is important to monitor the water level and periodically add it.
At the moment when the roots hatch from the seed, and it itself bursts, it will become clear that in a couple of weeks sprouts will appear. When this happens, you need to wait until the stems reach 15-18 cm. Then you should cut off the top so that new leaves appear. When the sprout grows back to 15 cm, it will be time to transplant them into the ground.
2. In the ground
The seed, as in the first case, must be prepared: washed, dried, removed the protective shell. After that, it must immediately be placed in the ground so that the upper pointed part looks out (it is not necessary to bury it).
It is very important to choose the right soil for the tree to grow well. Loose and light soil mixture is suitable for him. It is important that it is not acidic. You can add wood ash or dolomite flour to it. Another option is to buy a peat mix and supplement it with charcoal or sand.
After planting, carefully monitor the soil moisture: it should not be dry, but it should not be flooded either. It is good if the soil is constantly slightly damp. A month after planting, the first sprouts should appear from the seed.
How to transplant a seed into the ground
After the seed germinates using the first method, it must be transferred to the soil. Take a pot, put a small amount of drainage on the bottom. Then fill in the soil. Handle the seed carefully, as its roots are quite fragile. You need to place it in the center, then cover it with soil. In this case, the upper part of the seed and the sprout should be open, and the lower part should be hidden underground. After the procedure is completed, it is necessary to water the plant.
If you live in a region with a year-round warm climate, then the future tree can be planted in open ground, for example, in a garden or in a country house. It is better to do this when the sprout is a little stronger. The procedure is similar to the previous one: you need to make a small depression in the ground, carefully place the sprout there without damaging the roots. Then sprinkle the lower part with earth and water. A tree in the open field, unlike a home sprout, can be grafted so that it bears fruit in the future. However, if you want to use it as a decoration, then this can not be done.
How to care for a plant
Avocado loves the light, although it can be placed in partial shade, such conditions are also suitable. Do not put in direct sun: its rays can leave burns on the leaves. You can find a place for him, for example, on a window facing the west side. In winter, the plant is likely to need additional lighting, especially in those regions where it is cloudy and dark during the cold season.
The tree was born in a tropical country, so it needs the appropriate conditions: high humidity and warmth. The plant will easily endure the heat, but in winter the air should warm up to +20 degrees. At a temperature of +12 degrees, it hibernates, so in the cold season it is important to keep it constantly warm. For him, drops and drafts are critical — with them, the leaves of the avocado will fall off. Therefore, gardeners note that even at warm temperatures it is not worth taking it outside, the slightest changes will affect the condition.
Watering and humidity
The tree requires abundant and constant watering. However, the regularity depends on the season. During the active period of growth and the warm season, it is watered more often than during cold temperatures in winter. Watering is carried out, focusing on the ground: after drying the upper part, it is worth waiting a few days and only then bring in warm water. This is necessary so that the tree completely absorbs the moisture that remains in the ground.
The plant needs high humidity. Therefore, if the air in the room is dry, then this adversely affects it. You can solve the problem with a humidifier or regular spraying. They need to be done every day. At the same time, it is necessary to spray avocados according to the following scheme: spray moisture into the air around the tree so that water does not fall on the leaves.
Fertilizers must be applied every month, excluding the period from September to March. For top dressing, mixtures that are designed for citrus species are suitable. You can also choose a complex composition. It is enough to make supplements 1 time in 30 days.
Flower growers love the plant for its decorative effect. At home, it can be properly trimmed, and it will delight the owner with a beautiful appearance, as well as decorate the room. To make the plant curl unusually, you can intertwine avocado sprouts from the seed with each other during germination. Up to a certain point, the shoots will be flexible, so they can be given the desired shape.
The tree is pruned in early spring so that it feels better, actively develops and grows. Trimming is also used to form the necessary shape. However, it can be different, it depends on your desires and fantasies.
In nature, the tree grows strongly in height. To prevent this from happening at home, it is necessary to pinch it when at least 8 leaves appear on the stem. First pinch the top of the tree. This allows him to release side shoots. And then the plant becomes lush. When new branches acquire leaves and become voluminous enough, you can pinch them.
Under natural conditions, the tree can grow up to 20 meters in height. At home, it will not reach such sizes, but it will still grow quickly. Due to the rapid development of the root system, it is necessary to transplant the plant quite often. This is done for the first time when the tree reaches a height of 15 cm. Then the first pot will become cramped for him. You will need to choose a larger size. Then the plant is transplanted every year depending on the growth rate. After the speed decreases, so it will be possible to transfer to a new pot every three years.
How to understand that the plant is bad
Like other indoor varieties, common pests, such as spider mites or scale insects, can capture the avocado tree. The first suffers unpleasant diseases and spoils the leaves, the second drinks the juice of the plant. If you notice a lot of completely dry leaves, this may indicate a pest. Only insecticides will help the plant in this case.
If you notice that only the tips of the leaves are drying, this may indicate several problems: either you are not watering the tree enough, or the dry air of the apartment is harming it. To solve the problem, it is necessary to adjust the frequency of watering and spraying.
If you have noted that the plant sheds leaves, then you need to look for sources of drafts. Most likely, the tree does not like the conditions, or the temperature in the room is too cold for it.
Leaves that are too pale can be another cause for concern. In a healthy plant, they are a rich green color. In this case, poor lighting is most likely to blame: the tree simply does not have enough light. The solution to the problem is simple: either find a lighter place for the pot, or purchase an additional flower lamp.