In the construction of a country house, an interfloor staircase has become a necessary element and part of the interior. It can be both inconspicuous and perform decorative functions, be the center of a design composition that affects the design of the premises of the whole house.
When it is made, assembled with your own hands, an accurate calculation of all its parameters is necessary so that it does not become traumatic. Many companies are engaged in the supply of components, from which, according to the instructions, you can assemble a finished structure, without making its elements yourself.
You need to know its parameters, features of the device in order to choose the right staircase that will fit perfectly into the interior of the house.
You can design the structure yourself, make a sketch of it, or pick up an existing option in the photo catalog.
Brief content of the article:
The components of the stairs can be important, used without fail, and additional, included in the device of certain models. Steps (vertical, horizontal part), supports for their support are the main structural elements.
Support beams are of the following types:
- To support the steps from their end part (called a bowstring);
- With an emphasis from below (kosoura).
In some types of stairs, you can find the absence of railings and balusters — important elements in some structures that enclose space and protect against falling. Other models have racks and mounts on special bolts.
Interfloor stairs used in private homes can be divided into the following types:
- Ladders that have special bolts in the design as a fastening element — bolts;
A private house of any type is most often equipped with a marching staircase. In its design, it has marches consisting of several steps, separated by platforms. It is convenient to climb and descend on it, but it usually takes up a lot of space. As fastening steps, stringers or a bowstring are used.
Marching stairs, in turn, are divided into:
- Closed and open type (the presence or absence of risers in the design — their difference);
- Rotary (winder steps are used instead of platforms);
- quarter-turn configuration;
- Half-turn type;
- Circular shape.
The ladder on the bolts has special fasteners in its design — threaded pins, with the help of which the structural elements are interconnected, attached to the wall. There are no risers, thanks to which the staircase acquires an unusual airy look. It can be both compact and stretched. Differs in reliability, durability.
The calculation of its technical parameters is quite complicated for self-production. But — it can be made to order, or purchased unassembled, given the required dimensions.
Installation will also cause certain difficulties, it is better to entrust it to professionals. A preliminary consultation will not hurt before purchasing components for this type of ladder.
When the room has a small area, an interfloor spiral staircase fits perfectly into the interior. It will be inconvenient to move large-sized items, furniture, but a huge plus — saving space, crosses out this drawback. It is quite accessible for self-assembly with the ability to work with wood, metal structures.
For a private house, a model is suitable that has wedge-shaped steps in the design and a rack mounted on one side to the floor, the other to the inter-attic floor.
Steps in the form of a spiral are fixed to the rack in a circle. And the narrower the interfloor opening, the steeper the design, the less convenient. If assembled incorrectly, it can become very traumatic.
Starting to assemble the stairs, you need to pay attention to the following points:
- Calculation of the angle of inclination of the structure, what width, height the steps will be, how the first and last will be attached;
- The need to install a safety fence when the staircase is in the center of the room does not fit into the walls;
- The width of the steps must be at least 200 mm, their outer coating must not be slippery;
- The entire structure withstands, according to the requirements for residential buildings, at least 300 kg / m2;
- Reliability, rigidity of interfloor fastening;
- A ladder with an elevation angle exceeding 45 degrees is not installed;
- The optimal span width is up to one and a half meters;
- When dividing the structure with platforms, it becomes less traumatic;
- Do not save on fastening material, it must be of high quality;
- All elements of the stairs, manufactured independently, must comply with the dimensions according to the drawing.
In the process of manufacturing stairs, metal, wood, concrete are used. It all depends on the type, design, personal preferences.
But — first, a drawing of the future project is made, they determine the location of the interfloor staircase, and solve a number of issues:
- Will it be at the junction of the walls or in the center of the room?
- Is the floor covering suitable for this purpose?
- Will it withstand the load of the entire structure during use?
- What size, type of future staircase?
- What material (wood, metal, their combination) will the structure be assembled from?
- Do you plan to purchase a complete set of parts for assembly (ready-made project) or can you make them yourself?
In the design process, you will have to consider many options, choose the most optimal of them. If you have experience, you can draw up diagrams and drawings yourself.
Optimally — contact professional architects, designers and photo catalog, or in the process of joint work to decide on the final look of the interfloor staircase.
It is best to do this at the stage of building a house, and not when it is already rebuilt, in order to take into account all the nuances in the process of installing an interfloor staircase.
Most often, to ensure the best rigidity of the structure, a metal frame is used, which is subsequently sheathed with wood, sheet steel, marble slabs, and other materials to give an aesthetic appearance.
They actively use fittings, corners, channels for the manufacture of the main elements of the stairs. All parts are connected together in the process of welding. The resulting structure is primed, varnished to protect against corrosion.
The platform with all the ceilings, on which the flight of stairs will be placed, is preliminarily strengthened, the optimal support points are selected. Designs with optimal weight (wooden or metal) are also selected.
Detailed instructions for the manufacture of interfloor stairs may look like this:
A site is selected, the type of future structure is determined. All technical parameters are calculated, the amount of material (in other words, an estimate is made). Everything you need is purchased, the parts are adjusted to the desired dimensions on their own or with the help of professionals.
Beams, bowstrings, stringers are prepared, steps and risers are marked. They proceed to the installation of marches, attaching risers to them, the steps themselves, trying to perfectly combine the parts with each other without gaps. An intermediate platform is being made that separates the marches.
To fix the march from below, at the base, a support transverse beam is used, from above, to the interfloor ceiling — anchors and bolts. Fences are mounted with strengthening of balusters and intermediate racks using metal studs.
With the help of anchors, the extreme pillars are installed (rigidly attached to the wall). Railings are being installed. Decorative works are carried out (varnishing, use of wooden carvings, various overlays).
Of course, the manufacturing instructions are far from exhaustive. But she answers the main questions — “How to start making an interfloor staircase. In what order, what to do? The remaining nuances are clarified in the course of work.
Ultimately, making an interfloor staircase in a private house with your own hands, with experience, appropriate material, and equipment, is not so difficult. You can, of course, buy a finished project. But home masters do not look for simple solutions and easily cope with the tasks.
Photo of interfloor stairs