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Characteristics and nuances of a brick oven for a bath

For any person, a bath causes positive emotions, gives a boost of energy and maintains health. Brick stove will ensure the safety, comfort of the procedure and the quality of the steam. The owner will need to decide on the design and materials, consider the dimensions, as well as the type of fuel.

Sauna stoves have the following features:

  • View. Bake with heater — capacity for cobblestones, closed or open. They play the role of a heat accumulator, which increases the time of its preservation in the steam room.
  • Design. The stove consists of: a furnace, grates, a chimney and an ashpit (where ash accumulates).
  • The weight. Depends on size stovescan weigh from 1 t to 1 t 200 kg, so for its construction it is necessary to equip a reliable foundation.
  • Fuel. It can be powered by electricity, natural gas, but traditionally the stove is fired with wood.

The main parameters of the brick sauna stove:

  • Design. Many owners of baths prefer models with a tank for heating water, located at the top or bottom.
  • Dimensions. They mainly depend on the area of ​​u200bu200bthe room that they plan to heat. The base area of ​​the sauna heater is 3.5×4 or 4×5 bricks. The height of the structure, excluding the chimney pipe, is 1 m 680 mm or 2 m 100 mm.

Basic requirements for brick ovens with a heater

An important element of the Russian bath is the heater, therefore, serious requirements are imposed on its arrangement:

  • smoke and gases should not enter the room where the stove is located;
  • the ability to heat the air under the ceiling up to 95 C in a short time, while being economical;
  • it must be designed in such a way that the heat accumulated by the stones remains for a long time;
  • the oven cannot take up much space;
  • the volume of heated water should be at the rate of 15 liters per person.

Advice! For a bath, it is ideal to choose an open container: it is easier to care for it and more convenient to fill. In order to prevent freezing of water, it is drained completely in winter.

Advantages and disadvantages of a brick sauna heater

Most owners prefer to equip proven brick structures.

Advantages of a sauna heater:

  • Energy independence. In the presence of power failures and lack of gasification, brick heater for a bath — perfect option.
  • Comfort. The oven gives soft heat and rich, but at the same time light steam. It is easy to breathe in the steam room, which is important for those who like to steam often.
  • Heat capacity. The stove retains heat for 8 hours and is able to heat several rooms at once.
  • Profitability. There is no need to install an electrician or connect a gas pipeline, and then pay bills for consumed energy resources. Firewood is a cheap option for heating a bath.
  • Fire safety. Brick ovens, due to the design features, fully comply with the requirements.
  • Environmental friendliness. They lay out brick heaters, and melt it with firewood. All materials are safe for human health.
  • Design. Thanks to the design, some stoves are a real work of art.

Disadvantages of a brick oven:

  • Care. It is necessary to constantly clean the ash pan and at least once a year — the chimney.
  • Erection. Laying a stove is a complex process that only a competent stove maker can do.
  • Dimensions. A large heater will take up a lot of the usable area of ​​the steam room.
  • Time. The stove must be melted, and it will take not a single hour to warm up the steam room.
  • Price. Stone in the bath — pleasure is not cheap. It is necessary to equip the base, buy high-quality materials and pay for the services of a stove-maker.

Attention! The brick oven is positioned so that all the rooms of the bath are heated. The front part with a firebox and an ash pan is placed in a dressing room.

Safety measures when installing a brick heater stove

The basic rule of fire safety is the competent isolation of a brick structure from wooden surfaces.

Safety rules for installing a sauna stove:

  • Foundation. Adhering to certain rules, equip a reliable foundation.
  • Chimney. A pipe runs through the ceiling and roof. It is necessary to protect the contacting surfaces from overheating as much as possible, while maintaining the tightness of the steam room. There must be a gap between the elements of the building and the pipe, which is filled with refractory material.
  • Stone placement. The main requirement is that adjacent wooden surfaces must be protected from overheating. The distance between the walls and the heater must be at least 0.5 m, the firebox doors — 1 m 50 cm.
  • Insulation. Behind the stove, the wall is protected with brickwork and tin, which are also laid on the floor to protect it from embers that have fallen out of the fire.

Types of brick oven for a bath

Main firing options:

  • By black. The type of oven was especially popular in the villages. The main feature of the heater is the absence of a chimney. Thanks to this, there is more than enough aroma and steam in the room. The disadvantage is that you can steam only when the fuel has completely burned out.

  • By gray. An economical version of the stove with a chimney, thanks to which the bath room warms up much faster.

  • By white. The most acceptable design. When using this type, there will be no traces of soot in the room, and the heat will last longer. Disadvantage: warming up takes a long time.

  • With stove. The most practical option. The container, closed with a brick wall on three sides, is installed on a cast-iron stove. As a result, the water stays hot longer. Stones are placed above the chimney. In some cases, the order may be different.

Attention! A gray heater is the simplest construction option.

Brick sauna stove is divided into two categories according to the action:

  1. Permanent. Stones are placed on a stove or in a metal box. They are heated not by open fire, but by transferring heat from one material to another. A distinctive feature — you can drown even if there are people in the room. Brick sauna stove with a closed heater prevents combustion products from entering the steam room.
  2. Periodic. The stones are located on a metal grate directly above the fire. Water is poured directly on them only when the firewood is completely burned. Brick oven for a bath with an open heater requires periodic heating.

The choice of materials for the construction of an open stone stove

Two types of refractory bricks are used:

  • Red full bodied. It is used to lay the body of the heater, decorative elements and the chimney. For the construction of a small structure, 300 pieces are enough, for a large heater — up to 1000 pieces.

  • Fireclay. It does not lose strength, even when heated to 1400 C. It absorbs heat well and cools slowly, keeping the heat in the room as long as possible. The parameters are much better than other types. Due to the high cost, they are used exclusively for arranging a firebox.

Advice! The quality of the brick is checked by tapping the material with a trowel’s pen. If there are flaws or marriage, the sound will be deaf.

Tools and materials for the construction of the heater:

  • Solution. Knead only on the basis of clay and sand. Cement is not suitable for this, because when heated, it crumbles, destroying the masonry.
  • Heat insulator. Any heat-resistant material that is used to insulate surfaces to prevent overheating will do.
  • Furnace casting. You will need a stove damper, containers for stones and water made of steel, a grate, cast-iron doors.
  • Tools. Dishes for mixing mortar and soaking bricks, a chimney pipe, clay, building level, sand, tape measure, sieve, steel wire, asbestos, roofing material, goats for high-altitude work.


Construction begins with the development of the project. It is extremely difficult to find a ready-made scheme. As a rule, it has to be improved. All rows of masonry are drawn in detail, making adjustments. When making even small changes, it is necessary to consult a good stove-maker.

When making adjustments to the project, it is worth considering the features of brick klak furnaces:

  • The firebox should not be too small. The size of the blower is such as to ensure sufficient air flow.
  • Grates are laid along the channel. However, it is difficult to find the right size, so not so long gratings are installed across.
  • The height of the firebox is not more than half a meter, provided that a blower is placed above it. Ideally — 8-9 rows. Thanks to this, the stones will warm up to the desired temperature faster. In a furnace of a lower height, the stones do not heat up enough, and soot will accumulate between them.
  • The distance between unprotected wooden structural elements and a brick wall is at least 30 cm.
  • Before laying bricks on a clay-sand mortar, it is necessary to lay them dry according to the scheme, starting from one corner. Bricks of the required size are selected so that the seams are no more than 5 mm. Only then they are laid using a solution.

  • The stacked rows are checked using the building level before starting a new one. Installed plumb lines check the exact observance of the angles. Even small deviations need to be corrected.
  • When installing the doors, they begin to lay the brick from it, rigidly fixing the metal element. The places where the door fits are wrapped with asbestos in advance. Fix them with trellis or steel strips. Small grooves are made in the bricks under the wire, which will ensure a rigid fixation.
  • The places where the pipe passes, in contact with the wall, ceiling and roof, must be insulated with refractory materials.

Having chosen a project, they draw up an order — a plan for laying out bricks separately for each row.

Foundation arrangement

The weight of even the most modest-sized stove is approximately 800 kg, so it is imperative to equip a solid foundation for it.

Brick sauna stove — base requirements:

  • choose a place so that later you do not have to cut out the supporting beams and floor boards;
  • it is more practical not to connect the base for the heater with the foundation of the bath; during shrinkage, this will protect the structure from destruction. There must be a gap of at least 5 cm between them. To ensure fire safety, it is filled with heat-insulating material;
  • the base for the heater and the bath is made of the same depth;
  • the correct base looks like an inverted trapezoid — at the bottom the base should match the size of the furnace, and the top one should be increased by 10 cm from all sides.

The stability and strength of the heater depends on the quality of the foundation laid, so it is important to follow the construction technology.

Stages of building a foundation:

  • having completed the markup, pegs are driven in at the corners and a trellis is pulled between them;
  • they dig a pit half a meter deep, expanding at the bottom by 10 cm;
  • on a layer of sand, pour broken brick or rubble. Thoroughly rammed, covered with roofing material;
  • formwork is made around the perimeter of the pit;
  • put a reinforcing mesh of rods, leaving a gap of 5 cm between it and the wall of the pit, using stands or other clamps;
  • pour concrete solution, not reaching 15 cm to the edge of the surface. Level the top;
  • leave for about a week. The formwork is dismantled.

After the work has been completed, the foundation is covered with waterproofing. To do this, strips of roofing material are laid so that it covers the entire surface, protruding 5 cm beyond the edges. The second layer is placed perpendicular to the first. Fix the waterproofing with bituminous mastic.

Advice! Clay must be diluted to a paste-like state in water and rubbed through a sieve.

Brick oven in the bath: the rules for mixing the solution

The heater is not erected on the basis of a cement mixture, as it cracks under the influence of intense heat. To do this, use a clay-sand mixture, which will ensure a long service life of the heater. Water should be free of foreign matter and debris. The sand is pre-screened.

Important! The clay for the solution is soaked for several days so that it is well soaked. Immediately before laying, it is diluted with water, bringing it to the required consistency by adding sand.

Uniformity is achieved by interrupting the mixture with a special nozzle or in a mixer, only after that they begin laying. You can determine the viscosity with a stick, it is dipped into the solution, and then shaken off. If after that a layer of more than 3 mm remains on it, pour sand. The solution should be of the consistency of plasticine.

Brick oven masonry

Brick oven for a bath with an open heater or another option cannot be built without ordering — layouts of bricks in rows. First, they are numbered, cuts are made, pieces are selected according to size and shape. Having prepared everything, they begin to work with the solution.

Advice! Good adhesion will ensure that the bricks are pre-soaked in water until bubbles appear.

Bake with heater: erection sequence:

  • The first layer of bricks is laid around the perimeter of the furnace. The series is called zero. The angles of this base should be 90 degrees and exactly match the ordering pattern around the perimeter. Diagonal difference should not exceed 2-3 mm. This is due to the shape of the brick.
  • The thickness of the seams is not more than 5 mm. When laying a row, the joint at the bottom should cover the whole brick. Having laid out the first line, they switch to a clay-sand mortar.
  • On the third line, a spool door is installed. Fastening galvanized wire will ensure a solid installation. For dense masonry, the upper brick is cut.

Advice! Many stove-makers recommend that the brick located above the door be formed in the shape of a wedge, since with strong heating of the metal, this will create additional structural strength. The wire can be replaced with galvanized sheet.

  • Before laying the fourth row, be sure to check the evenness with a building level. Start installing the ash container and grate.
  • The blower door is mounted on the sixth line. In the seventh row, recesses of 1.5 cm are cut out to equip the grate. Do this in such a way that there is a gap between the brick and it.
  • For 14 rows, masonry is made with a partition into which channels are cut. An opening is made in front of the heater, where a container is installed in which water will be heated.
  • The fifteenth line is placed in half a brick, setting the halves at an angle. The next three lines are mounted with a spoon bandage.
  • In the 19th row they put a door through which steam will escape. The twentieth and next are fastened with wire or strips of U-shaped suspensions. They begin to install the exhaust pipe, the height of which is determined taking into account the size of the bath, but it should rise above the roof by at least half a meter.

Advice! The chimney is coated with a solution of cement or lime.

Brick stove stove: chimney device

When installing a chimney, take into account that when the temperature changes, the iron pipe will create condensate. This will lead to the accumulation of soot in it, so it is recommended to replace the metal with a brick.

The size of the stove must match the size of the chimney. After installation, it is brought to a height of at least half a meter above the roof. Usually, an asbestos pipe is used for this, which is lined with bricks. The quality of the work will depend on how well the smoke will be removed from the room.

Advice! The chimney is folded only from a whole brick so that the cracked elements and halves do not fall out. The laying must be very neat. Only a completely flat surface will prevent the accumulation of soot and dust.

Narrowing the chimney channel is contraindicated. Its length from the edges of the pipe to the grate must be at least 5 meters. At smaller sizes, the smoke will not be able to cool quickly, and the heat will fly out into the chimney.

At the point of passage in the ceiling, the chimney is lined with bricks and insulated with heat-resistant material. From the outside, they are covered with a solution of lime, so that in the event of a leak, they can immediately find where it occurs.

At the end of all the work, the oven is left for several days, leaving the windows and doors open so that it dries out. Perform a trial run. To do this, heat the oven for ten minutes with small chips. They do this several times. If condensation appears on the structure, it means that it has not yet dried out enough.

Brick oven for a bath with a closed heater: arrangement of a water-heating tank

Often the design of a stove with a closed sauna heater includes a water tank — this is economical and convenient. Install it so that it consumes maximum heat. Tanks are built-in or mounted, depending on the size of the furnace. Mount next to the chimney.

The volume of the container is calculated taking into account that 20 liters of hot water will be needed per person. When using the bath by a large company, it is recommended to install a tank of 100 liters or more. It is better to choose a container made of stainless steel so that the water does not turn yellow.

Brick oven with a closed sauna heater and open stones: finishing features

brick stoves are ideal for cladding. It warms up evenly with a brick.

The most popular facing materials:

  • The tile is clinker. It has high heat capacity and refractoriness. Over time, it does not deform, giving the steam room a cozy look. Chamotte clay is used in production. There are different colors.

  • Tile. The tiles are box-shaped. Often made by hand. Filled with glaze and decorated with a sophisticated pattern. Invented specifically for facing furnaces. The back side has a special design and is fastened into the seams with special metal pins, simultaneously with the masonry.

  • Majolica. Tiles made by pressing: an improved type of terracotta. The tile is covered with glaze and a colored pattern is applied.

  • Terracotta. Unglazed pressed clay obtained by firing. The tile is characteristically brown-red in color and has excellent strength indicators.

Stove with open stove can be decorated with stone or brick. With proper care, the lining will delight lovers of steam for a long time. Brick oven for a bath with a closed heater regularly wiped from soot and dust. Damaged items are repaired or replaced.

Today it is difficult to find a competent master stove-setter who can install a heater with economical fuel consumption and maximum heat output. A brick sauna stove can be laid out on your own, the main thing is to clearly follow the recommendations for construction and the ordering scheme. The cost of construction will depend on the selected materials. The firebox is laid out only from fireclay bricks, and the doors must be cast iron.

Photo of brick ovens for a bath: