One of the important conditions for the uninterrupted operation of boilers and heat generators is the availability and quality of fuel raw materials. Along with diesel and fuel oil in boiler houses of housing and communal services and industrial enterprises are very popular oil burners. Many manufacturers provide for the use of crude or commercial oil in their burners. However, there are a number of nuances that must be taken into account when organizing the combustion process and trouble-free operation of thermal equipment.
Features of oil as a fuel
Fossil oil is a complex chemical compound, which includes hydrocarbons, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, mineral salts and various impurities. It has a high calorific value of 10000 Kcal/kg (for comparison, this value is 9800 for fuel oil, and 11000 Kcal/kg for diesel fuel). Such a calorific value and low price make it expedient to use oil for the operation of furnaces and industrial boilers.
According to its composition, oil is:
- raw (not passed primary processing and cleaning);
- commodity (prepared in accordance with established standards).
These two types of use have significant differences, since crude oil contains many aggressive substances that can adversely affect the operation of the burner, boiler and the entire heating system.
When choosing a fuel oil, it is important to consider several points:
- The ratio of the amount of hydrocarbons and hydrogen is not constant for different fields, but it is an important energy indicator. Not only the efficiency of heat generation depends on it, but also the required combustion temperature, the intensity of soot and soot formation.
- Oil contains elements that, during the combustion process, are converted into harmful gaseous and solid substances that affect the environment and the frequency of service activities.
- Crude oil has a significant viscosity and is not suitable for burners oriented only to light diesel fuel. In most cases, it is used to operate boilers with oil and combination burners.
- All types of liquid fuels require preliminary preparation before being fed to the burner. In the case of oil, this is heating (to achieve optimal viscosity and high-quality atomization) and filtration (to eliminate water and solid impurities).
Organization of work of oil burners
In order for the operation of the boiler to be efficient and safe, when selecting an oil burner, it is necessary to analyze the fuel or check the compliance of the parameters according to its passport (if it is provided by the supplier).
Here the following indicators should be taken into account:
- physical and chemical composition;
- kinematic viscosity;
- density under standard conditions;
- minimum heat of combustion;
- concentration of water and impurities;
- recommended pressure and temperature readings.
Preparation of oil at the refinery is not always carried out. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out fuel preparation directly at the place of operation. For this it is necessary to provide:
- Primary heating required for transportation.
- Fuel supply to the burner under pressure.
- Secondary heating for efficient operation of the nozzles.
- Filtration, removal of sulfur, mineral salts and water.
- Regular cleaning of filters and nozzles.
For this purpose, it will be necessary to install auxiliary equipment: pumping stations, preheating systems, coarse and fine filters, compressors, deaerators.
Modern devices of well-known manufacturers Sibstrong, Riello, CIB Unigas, Weishaupt, Baltur, etc. are equipped with reliable automation that fully controls the operation process and minimizes harmful emissions. So choose and buy oil burners — this is a rational solution that will allow you to get an inexpensive source of heat to solve the problems of heat supply to industrial and energy enterprises.